We are greatly indebted to our learning group network of Minnesota organic producers. Without their perspectives and input on the concept and contents, this project would not have been possible. We would like to thank the field crews and researchers at the Southwest Research and Outreach Center, at the Southern Research and Outreach Center, and at the St. Paul campus for coordinating our organic field research. We would also like to recognize the diligent work other organic researchers in the region, whose data helped support our conclusions. Our gratitude goes to Arlene West for her patience and excellent work on the layout and design.

This manual was funded by the USDA Risk Management Agency (RMA) through a Research Partnership Grant titled “Tools for Managing Pest and Environmental Risks to Organic Crops in the Upper Midwest”.

Other research support for this project is through the “Beyond Corn and Soybean: Alternative Organic Crops for the Upper Midwest” grant from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA).


Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and that no endorsement is implied by the authors or the University of Minnesota.


  • Kristine M. Moncada
  • Craig C. Sheaffer


  • Mary P. Brakke
  • Jeffrey A. Coulter
  • Carmen M. Fernholz
  • Jeffrey L. Gunsolus
  • Sheri C. Huerd
  • John A. Lamb
  • Kristine M. Moncada
  • Craig C. Sheaffer
  • James B. Stordahl
  • Jochum J. Wiersma
  • Donald L. Wyse